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Key licensed. Thousands of chemicals have been identified as contaminants of emerging concern (CECs), but prioritizing them concerning ecological and human health risks is challenging. We explored the use of sewage treatment plants as chemical observatories to conveniently identify persistent and bioaccumulative CECs, including toxic organohalides. Nationally representative samples of sewage sludge (biosolids) were analyzed for 231 CECs, of which 123 were detected. Ten of the top 11 most abundant CECs in biosolids were found to be high-production volume chemicals, eight of which representing priority chemicals, including three flame retardants, three surfactants and two antimicrobials. A comparison of chemicals detected in nationally representative biological specimens from humans and municipal biosolids revealed 70% overlap. This observed co-occurrence of contaminants in both matrices suggests that the analysis of sewage sludge can inform human health risk assessments by providing current information on toxic exposures in human populations and associated body burdens of harmful environmental pollutants.
Thousands of organic chemicals have been identified as contaminants of emerging concern (CECs). Sampling and identification of CECs in various environmental matrices for prioritization of CECs is often time consuming, tedious, and costly. Hence, several methods of screening for potential CECs have been proposed,,,. Screening methods typically consider the persistence, bioaccumulation potential and toxicity of chemicals (PBT approach). However, this approach does not consider two critical aspects influencing the risks posed by chemicals to humans and ecosystems: current chemical production rates and the individual behavior of chemicals in real-world biological systems. Tools informing on chemical usage rates and real-world biodegradability of chemicals thus would be a welcome addition to the toolbox of risk assessors tasked with prioritizing and managing CECs. Most chemicals used in consumer products are ultimately washed down the drain and are collected in municipal sewers ().
Efficient chemical monitoring at wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) thus may provide up-to-date information on chemical usage rates for epidemiological assessments. This so-called “sewage epidemiology” approach has been employed by other researchers to evaluate illicit-drug use in communities via measurement of drug levels in influent wastewater. Here, we demonstrate the use of sample repositories from U.S. WWTPs nationwide to conveniently derive information on the occurrence and identity of CECs as well as their bioaccumulation potential and propensity to withstand degradation processes. The underlying hypothesis of this work is that WWTPs can serve as chemical observatories to study the prevalence and likely fate of chemicals and their bioaccumulation potential in human society and the environment. Secondary treatment of municipal sewage consists of a biological treatment operation employing a highly complex and concentrated microbial community.